Douglas S. Glazier, Ph.D.
Professor of Biology
Professional Activities
Dr. Doug Glazier

Community Activities
Research Interests
Selected Publications
Contact Dr. Glazier

                                                            My Schedule 

Dr. Glazier enjoys teaching and engaging students in research (the ultimate form of science education!). The high value he places on undergraduate research can be traced back to his own valuable experience at Oakland University (Rochester, MI). As a sophomore he began to learn the art of scientific research from his mentors Moon J. Pak and the late V. Everett Kinsey. Through their help he was awarded two National Science Foundation Undergraduate Research Participation Awards and an Alumnus Association Undergraduate Student Research Award. A great beginning for a life-long career in science education and research! Dr. Glazier is also grateful to many fellow educators and scientists who have helped him become a better teacher-scholar, especially William Brown, LaMont Cole and Ari van Tienhoven (Cornell University), James Brown (University of New Mexico), Peter Calow (University of Sheffield), Donald Kaufman (Miami University) and Debra Kirchhof-Glazier (Juniata College).

Dr. Glazier is presently a professor of biology at Juniata College (Huntingdon, PA) where he has worked with over 60 students on various research projects and internships. Twelve of these students have been co-authors on various publications, and several have won awards for presentations of their work at regional meetings of Beta Beta Beta, a national biological honor society. Still others have presented their research at the National Conference for Undergraduate Research. His research and that of his students have been supported by the National Science Foundation, Sigma Xi, Pew Charitable Trusts, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, von Liebig Foundation, Pennsylvania Higher Education Assistance Agency, the Juniata College Scholarship Fund, and Juniata College Raystown Field Station grants from the R.K. Mellon Foundation and Juniata College trustee, Robert E. Wagoner.

During 1995-1998, Dr. Glazier was chair of Juniata College's Environmental Science Program. The program has greatly expanded during this time and is now part of a new Department of Environmental Science and Studies, with Dr. Paula Martin as chair.  Dr. Glazier is presently convener of Juniata College's Environmental Task Force, whose mission is to promote environmental awareness and resource conservation on campus.

He has published over 45 articles and abstracts, and is also writing a book "Small Mammals: Energetics, Ecology and Evolution".  He has been a manuscript reviewer for 23 research journals and a grant proposal reviewer for the National Science Foundation and other granting agencies.  He is the author of two Juniata College publications: the "Biology Department Handbook" (1992) and the "Environmental Science Handbook: A Student Guide to Coursework, Resources, and Opportunities" (1995).

Dr. Glazier has given many special college and community presentations on various ecological, environmental and evolutionary topics, including acid rain, African wildlife, Charles Darwin, and the Creation/Evolution Debate.

In 1990, he was awarded the Educational Conservation Silver Award by the Pennsylvania and National Council of State Garden Clubs.  In 2000, he was honored with the Beachley Distinguished Academic Service Award at Juniata College.  In 2002, Dr. Glazier and his colleagues Dr. Randy Bennett and Dr. Xinli Wang received an award from the John Templeton Foundation for development of their course "God, Evolution and Culture".  Dr. Glazier is married to Juniata biology professor Debra Kirchhof-Glazier , and they have two children.  He enjoys hiking, reading, natural history, ice skating, traveling, and many kinds of sports.


1973 - B.A. (cum laude): Biology, Oakland University , Rochester, MI

1979 - Ph.D., Ecology (major), Physiology and Evolutionary Biology (minors), Cornell University , Ithaca, NY (graduate committee: Peter F. Brussard, LaMont C. Cole, Milo Richmond, and Ari van Tienhoven)

Additional Study:

1972 - Ecology and Invertebrate Zoology, W.K. Kellogg Biological Station , Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI

1988 to 1989 - Physiological Ecology, University of Sheffield , Sheffield, England (as an Honorary Research Fellow in the Department of Animal and Plant Sciences; host: Professor Peter Calow)

2000 - Physiological Ecology, Universita' degli Studi di Lecce , Lecce, Italy (as a visiting researcher in the Dipartimento di Biologia; host: Professor Alberto Basset)

2002 - Physiological Ecology, Pomona College , Claremont, California (as a visiting researcher in the Department of Biology; host: Dr. Jonathan Wright)


Courses taught at Juniata College:
General Biology I and II; Chemistry-Biology Laboratory; God, Evolution & Culture; General Ecology; Evolutionary Ecology; Environmental Biology; Vertebrate Zoology; Organic Evolution; and Biogeography.

Teaching philosophy:
Dr. Glazier's students learn how to think and act as biologists, ecologists and/or environmental scientists by (i) learning the language and approaches of science, (ii) discussions of current research problems, (iii) reading of classic and current scientific literature, (iv) investigative laboratories, and (v) independent undergraduate research.

Courses: Spring 2005

  CA 201 God, Evolution & Culture

  BI 300 General Ecology

  BI 301 General Ecology Laboratory

  BI 339 Organic Evolution 

My Schedule

Juniata Ecology Webpage:

Research Link 2000:

Professional Activities

Professional Societies: Special Appointments: Student Advising:

Community Activities

Research Interests

Specific interests:
Functional biology and life-history evolution of mammals (especially murid rodents) and crustaceans (especially cladocerans and pericaridans), ecology of freshwater springs, ecology of land invasions, ecology of metabolic and life-history scaling, biological correlates of species geographic ranges, and patterns of taxonomic diversity.

Student research:
All of the above areas. Involves field, laboratory and/or computer work. Current projects on the ecology of land invasions by isopod crustaceans (i.e. sowbugs), and the effects of predation on the bio-energetic and life-history evolution of amphipod crustaceans in local freshwater springs.

Selected Publications

Reproductive ecology and biogeography of white-footed mice (Peromyscus)

Glazier, D.S. (1980) Ecological shifts and the evolution of geographically restricted species of North American Peromyscus (mice). Journal of Biogeography, 7, 63-83.

Glazier, D.S. (1985) Relationship between metabolic rate and energy expenditure for lactation in Peromyscus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 80A, 587-590.

Glazier, D.S. (1985) Energetics of litter size in five species of Peromyscus with generalizations for other mammals. Journal of Mammalogy, 66, 629-642.

Glazier, D.S. (1990) Constraints on the offspring production efficiency of Peromyscus and other rodents. Functional Ecology, 4 , 223-231.

Glazier, D.S. (1990) Reproductive efficiency and the timing of gestation and lactation in rodents. American Naturalist, 135, 269-277.

Physiological ecology and life-history evolution of waterfleas (Daphnia)

Glazier, D.S. (1991) Separating the respiration rates of embryos and brooding females of Daphnia magna: Implications for the cost of brooding and the allometry of metabolic rate. Limnology and Oceanography, 36, 354-362.

Glazier, D.S. (1992) Effects of food, genotype, and maternal size and age on offspring investment in Daphnia magna. Ecology , 73, 910-926.

Glazier, D.S. & Calow, P. (1992) Energy allocation rules in Daphnia magna: Clonal and age differences in the effects of food limitation. Oecologia, 90, 540-549.

Glazier, D.S. (1998) Does body storage act as a food-availability cue for adaptive adjustment of egg size and number in Daphnia magna? FreshwaterBiology, 40, 87-92.

Physiological ecology and life-history evolution of amphipods (Gammarus)

Glazier, D.S., Horne, M.T.* and Lehman, M.E.* (1992) Abundance, body composition, and reproductive output of Gammarus minus Say (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in ten cold springs differing in pH and ionic content. Freshwater Biology , 28, 149-163.

Glazier, D.S. & Sparks, B.L.* (1997) Energetics of amphipods in ion-poor waters: stress resistance is not invariably linked to low metabolic rates. Functional Ecology, 11, 126-128.

Glazier, D.S. (1998) Springs as model ecosystems for ecology and evolutionary biology: A case study of Gammarus minus Say (Amphipoda) in mid-Appalachian springs differing in pH and ionic content. In: Studies in Crenobiology. The Biology of Springs and Springbrooks (ed., L. Botosaneanu), Backhuys, Leiden, pp. 49-62.

Glazier, D.S. (1999) Variation in offspring investment within and among populations of Gammarus minus Say (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in ten mid-Appalachian springs (U.S.A.). Archiv fur Hydrobiologie, 146 , 257-284.

Glazier, D.S. (2000) Is fatter fitter? Body storage and reproduction in ten populations of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus minus. Oecologia , 122, 335-345.

Glazier, D.S. (2000) Smaller amphipod mothers show stronger trade-offs between offspring size and number. Ecology Letters, 3, 142-149.

Ecology of the invasion of land and freshwater by isopods and amphipods

Glazier, D.S., Wolf, J.F.* and Kelly, C.J.* (2003) Reproductive investment of aquatic and terrestrial isopods in central Pennsylvania (U.S.A.). Crustaceana Monographs 2, 151-179.

Ecology of freshwater springs

Glazier, D.S. and Gooch, J.L. (1987) Macroinvertebrate assemblages in Pennsylvania (U.S.A.) springs. Hydrobiologia, 150, 33-43.

Glazier, D.S. (1991) The fauna of North American temperate cold springs: patterns and hypotheses. Freshwater Biology, 26, 527-542.

Gooch, J.L. and Glazier, D.S. (1991) Temporal and spatial patterns in mid-Appalachian springs. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada , 155 , 29-49.

Basset, A. & Glazier, D.S. (1995) Resource limitation and intraspecific patterns of weight x length variation among spring detritivores. Hydrobiologia, 316, 127-137.

Glazier, D.S. (1998) Springs as model ecosystems for ecology and evolutionary biology: A case study of Gammarus minus Say (Amphipoda) in mid-Appalachian springs differing in pH and ionic content. In: Studies in Crenobiology. The Biology of Springs and Springbrooks (ed. L. Botosaneanu), Backhuys, Leiden, pp. 49-62.

Biological correlates of geographic range size and taxonomic diversity

Glazier, D.S. (1980) Ecological shifts and the evolution of geographically restricted species of North American Peromyscus (mice). Journal of Biogeography, 7, 63-83.

Glazier, D.S. (1986) Temporal variability of abundance and the distribution of species. Oikos , 47, 309-314.

Glazier, D.S. (1987) Energetics and taxonomic patterns of species diversity. Systematic Zoology, 36, 62-71.

Glazier, D.S. and Eckert, S.E.* (2002) Competitive ability, body size and geographical range size in small mammals. Journal of Biogeography , 29, 81-92.

Ecology of speciation

Glazier, D.S. (1987) Toward a predictive theory of speciation: the ecology of isolate selection. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 126 , 323-333.

Global patterns of ecological efficiency

Glazier, D.S. (1991) Global patterns of ecological efficiency at the biome-level. Oikos, 61, 439-440.

Evolution of life histories

Glazier, D.S. (1999) Trade-offs between reproductive and somatic (storage) investments in animals: a comparative test of the Van Noordwijk and De Jong model. Evolutionary Ecology, 13, 539-555.

Glazier, D.S. & Newcomer, S.D.* (1999) Allochrony: a new way of analyzing life histories as illustrated with mammals. Evolutionary Ecology Research , 1, 333-346.

Glazier, D.S. (2002) Parental care. Pp. 860-865 in Encyclopedia of Evolution (ed. M. Pagel), Oxford University Press, New York.

Glazier, D.S. (2002) Resource-allocation rules and the heritability of traits. Evolution, 56, 1696-1700.

Ecology of metabolic scaling

Glazier, D.S. (2005) Beyond the "3/4-power law": variation in the intra- and interspecific scaling of metabolic rate in animals. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 80, 611-662.  Table 5 of Appendix is here .

Glazier, D.S. (2006) The 3/4-power law is not universal: evolution of isometric, ontogenetic metabolic scaling in pelagic animals. BioScience, 56, 325-332.

* Student author

You can e-mail Dr. Glazier at .
Office Location: BAC B313
Office phone: (814) 641-3584
Business fax: (814) 641-3687
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Juniata College
Huntingdon, PA 16652
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